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蚂蚁上树的家常做法,Linux指令中英文对照(二),霸王别姬

admin1个月前333浏览量

并不是每个人都会选择做讲师来传授linux知识,所以呢,大概率上大家不需要掌握全部的命令,只需要熟记一张图即可:

但是学徒耗费了大量的心力已经整理好了,值得分享给大家,当然,排版也很辛苦。

Linux Commands

M

m4

Macro processor.

宏处理器


mail

Utility to compose, receive, send, forward, and reply to emails.

用于撰写,接收,发送,转发和回复电子邮件的工具。


mailq

Shows to list all emails queued for delivery (sendmail queue).

列出所有待发送的电子邮件(sendmail队列)。


mailstats

Shows current mail statistics.

显示当前邮件统计信息


mailto

Used to send mail with multimedia content in MIME format.

用于发送MIME格式的多媒体内容的邮件


make

Utility to maintain groups of programs, recompile them if needed.

用于维护程序组的实用程序,在需要时进行重新编译


makedbm

Creates an NIS (Network Information Services) database map.

创建NIS(网络信息服务)数据库映射


makemap

Creates database maps used by the keyed map lookups in sendmail.

创建数据库映射,用于sendmail 命令中的关键字映射查询


man

Shows manual pages for Linux commands.

显示Linux命令的帮助文档


manpath

Determine search path for manual pages.

确定帮助的搜索路径


mattrib

Used to change MS-DOS file attribute flags.

用于更改MS-DOS文件属性标志


mbadblocks

Checks MD-DOS filesystems for bad blocks.

检查MD-DOS文件系统是否存在坏区块


mcat

Dump raw disk image.

转储原始磁盘映像


mcd

Used to change MS-DOS directory.

用于更改MS-DOS目录


mcopy

Used to copy MS-DOS files from or to Unix.

用于从Unix复制MS-DOS文件或复制至Unix系统


md5sum

Used to check MD5 checksum for a file.

对文件进行md5值校验


mdel, mdeltree

Used to delete MS-DOS file. mdeltree recursively deletes MS-DOS directory and its contents.

用于删除MS-DOS文件。mdeltree递归删除MS-DOS目录及其内容。


mdir

Used to display an MS-DOS directory.

用于显示MS-DOS目录。


mdu

Used to display the amount of space occupied by an MS-DOS directory.

用于显示MS-DOS目录占用的空间量


merge

Three-way file merge. Includes all changes from file2 and file3 to file1.

三向文件合并,将file2和file3的所有更改写至file1


mesg

Allow/disallow osends to sedn write messages to your terminal.

设置当前终端的写权限,即是否让其他用户向本终端发信息


metamail

For sending and showing rich text or multimedia email using MIME typing metadata.

使用MIME键入元数据发送和显示大量文本或多媒体电子邮件。


metasend

An interface for sending non-text mail.

用于发送非文本邮件的界面。


mformat

Used to add an MS-DOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk.

用于将MS-DOS文件系统添加到低水平格式化的软盘


mimencode

Translate to/from MIME multimedia mail encoding formats.

MIME多媒体邮件编码格式的转换


minfo

Display parameters of an MS-DOS filesystem.

显示MS-DOS文件系统的参数


mkdir

Used to create directories.

用于创建目录。


mkdosfs

Used to create an MS-DOS filesystem under Linux.

用于在Linux下创建MS-DOS文件系统。


mke2fs

Used create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem.

使用创建ext2 / ext3 / ext4文件系统。


mkfifo

Used to create named pipes (FIFOs) with the given names.

用于创建具有给定名称的命名管道(FIFO)


mkfs

Used to build a Linux filesystem on a hard disk partition.

用于在硬盘分区上构建Linux文件系统。


mkfs.ext3

Same as mke2fs, create an ext3 Linux filesystem.

与mke2fs相同,创建一个ext3 Linux文件系统。


mkisofs

Used to create an ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

用于创建ISO9660 / JOLIET / HFS混合文件系统


mklost+found

Create a lost+found directory on a mounted ext2 filesystem.

在已挂载的ext2文件系统上创建一个lost + found目录。


mkmanifest

Makes a list of file names and their DOS 8.3 equivalent.

制作文件名列表及其等效的DOS 8.3


mknod

Create a FIFO, block (buffered) special file, character (unbuffered) special file with the specified name.

创建指定类型和名称的特殊文件


mkraid

Used to setup RAID device arrays.

用于设置RAID设备阵列。


mkswap

Set up a Linux swap area.

设置Linux交换区域


mktemp

Create a temporary file or directory.

创建临时文件或目录。


mlabel

Make an MD-DOS volume label.

可设定磁碟的标签 (Label)


mmd

Make an MS-DOS subdirectory.

创建一个MS-DOS子目录


mmount

Mount an MS-DOS disk.

挂载MS-DOS磁盘


mmove

Move or rename an MS-DOS file or subdirectory.

移动或重命名MS-DOS文件或子目录。


mmv

Mass move and rename files.

批量移动和重命名文件。


modinfo

Show information about a Linux kernel module.

显示有关Linux内核模块的信息。


modprobe

Add or remove modules from the Linux kernel.

从Linux内核中添加或删除模块。


more

Display content of a file page-by-page.

逐页显示文件内容。


most

Browse or page through a text file.

浏览或翻阅文本文件


mount

Mount a filesystem.

挂载文件系统。


mountd

NFS mount daemon.

NFS挂载守护程序


mpartition

Partition an MS-DOS disk.

对MS-DOS磁盘进行分区


mpg123

Command-line mp3 player.

命令行mp3播放器


mpg321

Similar to mpg123.

与mpg123相似


mrd

Remove an MS-DOS subdirectory.

删除MS-DOS子目录。


mren

Rename an existing MS-DOS file.

重命名现有的MS-DOS文件。


mshowfat

Show FTA clusters allocated to a file.

显示分配给文件的FTA簇


mt

Control magnetic tape drive operation.

控制磁带驱动操作


mtools

Utilities to access MS-DOS disks.

用于访问MS-DOS磁盘的实用程序


mtoolstest

Tests and displays the mtools configuration files.

测试并显示mtools配置文件


mtr

A network diagnostic tool.

网络诊断工具


mtype

Display contents of an MS-DOS file.

显示MS-DOS文件的内容


mv

Move/rename files or directories.

移动/重命名文件或目录


mzip

Change protection mode and eject disk on Zip/Jaz drive.

更改保护模式并弹出Zip / Jaz驱动器上的磁盘



Linux Commands

N

named

Internet domain name server.

互联网域名服务器


namei

Follow a pathname until a terminal point is found.

列出一个路径中所有的成分,包含符号连接


nameif

Name network interfaces based on MAC addresses.

根据MAC地址命名网络接口


nc

Netcat utility. Arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens.

Netcat实用程序。任意TCP和UDP连接和侦听。


netstat

Show network information.

显示网络信息


newaliases

Rebuilds mail alias database.

重建邮件别名数据库


newgrp

Log-in to a new group.

登录新组


newusers

Update/create new users in batch.

批量更新/创建新用户


nfsd

Special filesystem for controlling Linux NFS server.

用于控制Linux NFS服务器的特殊文件系统


nfsstat

List NFS statistics.

列出NFS统计信息


nice

Run a program with modified scheduling priority.

以指定的优先级运行命令,这会影响相应进程的调度


nl

Show numbered line while displaying the contents of a file.

展示文件内容时显示行号


nm

List symbols from object files.

列出目标文件中的符号


nohup

Run a command immune to hangups.

使命令免于挂起


notify-send

A program to send desktop notifications.

用于发送桌面通知的程序


nslookup

Used performs DNS queries. Read this article for more info.

用于查找域名服务器的程序


nsupdate

Dynamic DNS update utility.

动态DNS更新实用程序


Linux Commands

O

objcopy

Copy and translate object files.

复制和翻译目标文件


objdump

Display information from object files.

显示目标文件中的信息


od

Dump files in octal and other formats.

以八进制和其他格式转储文件


op

Operator access, allows system administrators to grant users access to certain root operations that require superuser privileges.

操作员访问权限,允许系统管理员授予用户对需要超级用户权限的某些根操作的访问权限。


open

Open a file using its default application.

使用其默认应用程序打开文件


openvt

Start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT).

在新的虚拟终端(VT)上启动程序




Linux Commands

P

passwd

Change user password.

更改用户密码


paste

Merge lines of files. Write to standard output, TAB-separated lines consisting of sqentially correspnding lines from each file.

将文件按行合并,写至标准输出保持行的顺序不变并以TAB进行分割


patch

Apply a patchfile (containing differences listing by diff program) to an original file.

对原始文件打补丁(包含diff程序的差异列表)


pathchk

Check if file names are valid or portable.

检查文件名是否有效或可移植


perl

Perl 5 language interpreter.

Perl 程序语言解释器


pgrep

List process IDs matching the specified criteria among all the running processes.

列出匹配特定条件的正在运行的进程ID。


pidof

Find process ID of a running program.

查找正在运行的程序的进程ID。


ping

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts.

将ICMP ECHO_REQUEST发送到网络主机


pinky

Lightweight finger.

finger命令的轻量级版本


pkill

Send kill signal to processes based on name and other attributes.

根据名称和其他属性终止进程


pmap

Report memory map of a process.

报告进程的内存映射


popd

Removes directory on the head of the directory stack and takes you to the new directory on the head.

删除目录堆栈的目录


portmap

Converts RPC program numbers to IP port numbers.

将RPC程序编号转换为IP端口号


poweroff

Shuts down the machine.

关机


pppd

Point-to-point protocol daemon.

点对点协议守护程序


pr

Convert (column or paginate) text files for printing.

转换(列或分页)文本文件以进行打印


praliases

Prints the current system mail aliases.

打印当前系统邮件别名。


printcap

Printer capability database.

打印机功能数据库


printenv

Show values of all or specified environment variables.

显示所有或特定环境变量的值


printf

Show arguments formatted according to a specified format.

显示根据指定格式设置的参数


ps

Report a snapshot of the current processes.

报告当前进程的快照


ptx

Produce a permuted index of file contents.

生成文件内容的置换索引


pushd

Appends a given directory name to the head of the stack and then cd to the given directory.

将特定的目录名称附加到堆栈的头部,切换至特定目录


pv

Monitor progress of data through a pipe.

通过管道监控数据进度


pwck

Verify integrity of password files.

验证密码文件的完整性


pwconv

Creates shadow from passwd and an optionally existing shadow.

从passwd和可选的现有shadow文件创建shadow文件。


pwd

Show current directory.

显示当前工作目录。


python



Linux Commands

Q

quota

Shows disk usage, and space limits for a user or group. Without arguments, only shows user quotas.

显示用户或组的磁盘使用情况和空间限制。没有参数时,只显示用户配额


quotacheck

Used to scan a file system for disk usage.

用于扫描文件系统以查找磁盘使用情况


quotactl

Make changes to disk quotas.

更改磁盘配额


quotaoff

Enable enforcement of filesystem quotas.

关闭用户的磁盘空间的限制


quotaon

Disable enforcement of filesystem quotas.

用来开启用户的磁盘空间的限制


quotastats

Shows the report of quota system statistics gathered from the kernel.

显示从内核收集的配额系统统计信息的报告




Linux Commands

R


raidstart

Start/stop RAID devices.

启动/停止RAID设备


ram

RAM disk device used to access the RAM disk in raw mode.

RAM磁盘设备,用于以原始模式访问RAM磁盘


ramsize

Show usage information for the RAM disk.

显示RAM磁盘的使用信息


ranlib

Generate index to the contents of an archive and store it in the archive.

生成存档内容的索引并将其存档


rar

Create and manage RAR file in Linux.

在Linux中创建和管理RAR文件


rarpd

Respond to Reverse Address Resoultion Protocol (RARP) requests.

响应反向地址解析协议(RARP)请求


rcp

Remote copy command to copy files between remote computers.

远程复制命令,可在远程计算机之间复制文件


rdate

Set system date and time by fetching information from a remote machine.

通过从远程计算机获取信息来设置系统日期和时间


rdev

Set or query RAM disk size, image root device, or video mode.

查询/设置内核映像文件的根设备,RAM 磁盘大小或视频模式


rdist

Remote file distribution client, maintains identical file copies over multiple hosts

远程文件分发客户端,在多个主机上维护相同的文件副本


rdistd

Start the rdist server.

启动rdist服务器


read

Read from a file descriptor.

从标准输入中读取一行,并把输入行的每个字段的值指定给 shell 变量


readarray

Read lines from a file into an array variable.

将文件按行读入数组变量


readcd

Read/write compact disks.

读/写光盘


readelf

Shows information about ELF (Executable and Linkable fomrat) files

显示有关ELF(可执行文件和可链接的fomrat)文件的信息。


readlink

Display value of a symbolic link or canonical file name.

输出符号链接值或权威文件名


readonly

Mark functions and variables as read-only.

将函数和变量标记为只读


reboot

Restart the machine.

重启


reject

Accept/reject print jobs sent to a specified destination.

拒绝发送到指定目的地的打印作业


remsync

Synchronize remote files over email.

通过电子邮件同步远程文件


rename

Rename one or more files.

对一个或多个文件重命名


renice

Change priority of active processes.

更改活动进程的优先级


repquota

Report disk usage and quotas for a specified filesystem.

报告特定文件系统的磁盘使用情况和配额


reset

Reinitialize the terminal.

对终端再次初始化


resize2fs

Used to resize ext2/ext3/ext4 file systems.

用于调整ext2 / ext3 / ext4文件系统的大小


restore

Restore files from a backup created using dump.

从使用dump创建的备份中还原文件


return

Exit a shell function.

从shell函数中返回


rev

Show contents of a file, reversing the order of characters in every line.

显示文件的内容,颠倒每行中的字符顺序


rexec

Remote execution client for exec server.

exec服务器的远程执行客户端


rexecd

Remote execution server.

远程执行服务器


richtext

View “richtext” on an ACSII terminal.

在ACSII终端上查看“richtext”


rlogin

Used to connect a local host system with a remote host.

用来连接当前本地主机系统到远端的主机系统


rlogind

Acts as the server for rlogin. It facilitates remote login, and authentication based on privileged port numbers from trusted hosts.

充当rlogin的服务器。它有助于远程登录和基于来自可信主机的特权端口号的身份验证


rm

Removes specified files and directories (not by default).

删除指定的文件和目录,对目录执行命令需加额外的参数


rmail

Handle remote mail received via uucp.

处理通过uucp收到的远程邮件


rmdir

Used to remove empty directories.

用于删除空目录


rmmod

A program to remove modules from Linux kernel.

从Linux内核中删除模块的程序


rndc

Name server control utility. Send command to a BIND DNS server over a TCP connection.

控制名称服务器的操作,通过TCP连接将命令发送到BIND DNS服务器。


rootflags

Show/set flags for the kernel image.

显示/设置内核映像的标志


route

Show/change IP routing table.

显示/更改IP路由表


routed

A daemon, invoked at boot time, to manage internet routing tables.

在启动时调用的守护程序,用于管理网络路由表


rpcgen

An RPC protocol compiler. Parse a file written in the RPC language.

RPC协议编译器。解析用RPC语言编写的文件


rpcinfo

Shows RPC information. Makes an RPC call to an RPC server and reports the findings.

显示RPC信息。对RPC服务器进行RPC调用并报告结果


rpm

A package manager for linux distributions. Originally developed for RedHat Linux.

Linux发行版的包管理器,最初是为RedHat Linux开发的


rsh

Remote shell. Connects to a specified host and executes commands.

远程shell。连接到指定的主机并执行命令。


rshd

A daemon that acts as a server for rsh and rcp commands.

一个守护程序,充当rsh和rcp命令的服务器


rsync

A versitile to for copying files remotely and locally.

远程和本地在Linux / Unix系统中复制和同步文件和目录的最常用命令


runlevel

Shows previous and current SysV runlevel.

显示上一个和当前的SysV运行级别


rup

Remote status display. Shows current system status for all or specified hosts on the local network.

远程状态显示。显示本地网络上所有或指定主机的当前系统状态


ruptime

Shows uptime and login details of the machines on the local network.

显示本地网络上计算机的正常运行时间和登录详细信息。


rusers

Shows the list of the users logged-in to the host or on all machines on the local network.

显示登录到主机或本地网络上所有计算机的用户列表。


rusersd

The rsuerd daemon acts as a server that responds to the queries from rsuers command.

rsuerd守护程序,充当响应来自rsuers命令的查询的服务器


rwall

Sends messages to all users on the local network.

将消息发送到本地网络上的所有用户。


rwho

Reports who is logged-in to the hosts on the local network.

报告谁登录到本地网络上的主机。


rwhod

Acts as a server for rwho and ruptime commands.

充当rwho和ruptime命令的服务器。


Linux Commands

S

sane-find-scanner

Find SCSI and USB scanner and determine their device files.

查找SCSI和USB扫描仪并确定其设备文件


scanadf

Retrieve multiple images from a scanner equipped with an automatic document feeder (ADF).

从配有自动文档进纸器(ADF)的扫描仪中检索多张图像


scanimage

Read images from image aquistion devices (scanner or camera) and display on standard output in PNM (Portable aNyMap) format.

从图像采集设备(扫描仪或相机)读取图像,并以PNM(便携式aNyMap)格式显示在标准输出上


scp

Copy files between hosts on a network securely using SSH.

使用SSH安全地在网络上的主机之间复制文件。


screen

A window manager that enables multiple pseudo-terminals with the help of ANSI/VT100 terminal emulation.

一个窗口管理器,在ANSI / VT100终端仿真的帮助下启用多个伪终端


script

Used to make a typescript of everything displayed on the screen during a terminal session.

用于记录当前用户的操作记录,默认写在typescript文件中


sdiff

Shows two files side-by-side and highlights the differences.

并排显示两个文件并对差异部分进行高亮


sed

Stream editor for filtering and transforming text (from a file or a pipe input).

用于过滤和转换文本的流编辑器(来自文件或管道输入)


select

Synchronous I/O multiplexing.

同步I / O复用


sendmail

It’s a mail router or an MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). sendmail support can send a mail to one or more recepients using necessary protocols.

它是邮件路由器或MTA(邮件传输代理)。sendmail支持可以使用必要的协议向一个或多个接收者发送邮件。


sensors

Shows the current readings of all sensor chips.

显示所有传感器芯片的当前读数


seq

Displays an incremental sequence of numbers from first to last.

以指定增量从首数开始打印数字到尾数


set

Used to manipulate shell variables and functions.

用于操作shell变量和函数


setfdprm

Sets floppy disk parameters as provided by the user.

设置用户提供的软盘参数


setkeycodes

Load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries.

加载内核scancode-to-keycode映射表条目


setleds

Show/change LED light settings of the keyboard.

显示/更改键盘的LED灯设置


setmetamode

Define keyboard meta key handling. Without arguments, shows current meta key mode.

定义键盘元键处理。没有参数时,显示当前的元键模式。


setquota

Set disk quotas for users and groups.

为用户和组设置磁盘配额


setsid

Run a program in a new session.

在新会话中运行程序


setterm

Set terminal attributes.

设置终端属性


sftp

Secure File Transfer program.

安全文件传输程序


sh

Command interpreter (shell) utility.

命令解释器


sha1sum

Compute and check 160-bit SHA1 checksum to verify file integrity.

计算并检查160位SHA1校验以验证文件完整性


shift

Shift positional parameters.

使位置参数移位


shopt

Shell options.

Shell选项。


showkey

Examines codes sent by the keyboard displays them in printable form.

检查键盘发送的代码以可打印的形式显示它们


showmount

Shows information about NFS server mount on the host.

显示主机上NFS服务器挂载的信息


shred

Overwrite a file to hide its content (optionally delete it), making it harder to recover it.

覆盖文件以隐藏其内容(可选择删除它),使其更难恢复


shutdown

Power-off the machine.

关机


size

Lists section size and the total size of a specified file.

输出指定输入文件各段及其总和的大小


skill

Send a signal to processes.

向进程发送信号


slabtop

Show kernel slab cache information in real-time.

实时显示内核slab缓存信息


slattach

Attach a network interface to a serial line.

连接串行线路作为网络接口


sleep

Suspend execution for a specified amount of time (in seconds).

使任务暂停特定时间(以秒为单位)


slocate

Display matches by searching filename databases. Takes ownership and file permission into consideration.

搜索文件名数据库显示匹配项,将所有权和文件权限都考虑进去


snice

Reset priority for processes.

重置进程的优先级。


sort

Sort lines of text files.

对文本文件按行排序


source

Run commands from a specified file.

运行来自特定文件的命令


split

Split a file into pieces of fixed size.

将文件拆分为固定大小的几个文件


ss

Display socket statistics, similar to netstat.

显示套接字统计信息,类似于netstat


ssh

An SSH client for logging in to a remote machine. It provides encrypted communication between the hosts.

用于登录远程计算机的SSH客户端。它提供主机之间的加密通信。


ssh-add

Adds private key identities to the authentication agent.

将私钥标识添加到身份验证代理


ssh-agent

It holds private keys used for public key authentication.

包含用于公钥认证的私钥


ssh-keygen

It generates, manages, converts authentication keys for ssh.

生成,管理,转换ssh的身份验证密钥


ssh-keyscan

Gather ssh public keys.

收集ssh公钥


sshd

Server for the ssh program.

ssh程序的服务器


stat

Display file or filesystem status.

显示文件或文件系统状态


statd

A daemon that listens for reboot notifications from other hosts, and manages the list of hosts to be notified when the local system reboots.

一个守护程序,用于侦听来自其他主机的重启通知,并管理本地系统重启要通知的主机列表。


strace

Trace system calls and signals.

跟踪系统调用和信号


strfile

Create a random access file for storing strings.

创建用于存储字符串的随机访问文件


strings

Search a specified file and prints any printable strings with at least four characters and followed by an unprintable character.

搜索指定的文件并打印任何至少包含四个字符的可打印字符串,后跟一个不可打印的字符。


strip

Discard symbols from object files.

丢弃目标文件中的符号


stty

Change and print terminal line settings.

输出或修改终端参数


su

Change user ID or become superuser.

更改用户ID或成为超级用户


sudo

Execute a command as superuser.

以超级用户身份执行命令


sum

Checksum and count the block in a file.

校验并计算文件中的区块


suspend

Suspend the execution of the current shell.

暂停当前shell的执行


swapoff

Disable devices for paging and swapping.

关闭系统交换分区


swapon

Enable devices for paging and swapping.

开启系统交换分区


symlink

Create a symbolic link to a file.

创建指向文件的符号链接


sync

Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage.

将缓存同步到持久存储


sysctl

Configure kernel parameters at runtime.

在运行时配置内核参数


sysklogd

Linux system logging utilities. Provides syslogd and klogd functionalities.

Linux系统日志实用程序。提供syslogd和klogd功能


syslogd

Read and log system messages to the system console and log files.

系统日志服务,非内核产生的信息



Linux Commands

T

tac

Concatenate and print files in reverse order. Opposite of cat command.

以相反的顺序连接和打印文件,与cat命令相反。


tail

Show the last 10 lines of each specified file(s).

显示每个特定文件的最后10行。


tailf

Follow the growth of a log file. (Deprecated command)

适合于日志文件的跟踪(弃用命令)


talk

A two-way screen-oriented communication utility that allows two user to exchange messages simulateneously.

可视通信程序,可将终端中的行复制到另一个用户的行中


talkd

A remote user communication server for talk.

用于talk命令的远程用户通信服务器


tar

GNU version of the tar archiving utility. Used to store and extract multiple files from a single archive.

tar归档实用程序的GNU版本。用于存储和提取单个存档中的多个文件。


taskset

Set/retrieve a process’s CPU affinity.

设置/检索进程的CPU关联


tcpd

Access control utility for internet services.

Internet服务的访问控制实用程序


tcpdump

Dump traffic on network. Displays a description of the contents of packets on a network interface that match the boolean expression.

转储网络流量,显示网络接口上与布尔表达式匹配的数据包内容的描述


tcpslice

Extract pieces of tcpdump files or merge them.

提取tcpdump文件或合并它们


tee

Read from standard input and write to standard output and files.

从标准输入读取并写入标准输出和文件。


telinit

Change SysV runlevel.

更改SysV运行级别


telnet

Telnet protocol user interface. Used to interact with another host using telnet.

Telnet协议用户界面,使用telnet与其他主机进行交互


telnetd

A server for the telnet protocol.

用于telnet协议的服务器


test

Check file type and compare values.

检查文件类型并比较值


tftp

User interface to the internet TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol).

Internet TFTP(普通文件传输协议)的用户界面


tftpd

TFTP server.

TFTP服务器。


time

Run programs and summarize system resource usage.

运行程序并总结系统资源使用情况


timeout

Execute a command with a time limit.

执行带有时间限制的命令。


times

Shows accumulated user and system times for the shell and it’s child processes.

显示shell及其子进程的累计用户和系统时间


tload

Shows a graph of the current system load average to the specified tty.

以图形化的方式输出当前系统的平均负载到指定的终端


tmpwatch

Recursively remove files and directories which haven’t been accessed for the specified period of time.

递归删除在指定时间段内未访问的文件和目录


top

Displays real-time view of processes running on the system.

显示系统上运行的进程的实时视图


touch

Change file access and modification times.

更改文件访问和修改时间


tput

Modify terminal-dependent capabilities, color, etc.

修改与终端相关的功能,颜色等


tr

Translate, squeeze, or delete characters from standard input and display on standard output.

从标准输入中替换、缩减和/或删除字符,并将结果写到标准输出


tracepath

Traces path to a network host discovering MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) along this path.

跟踪网络主机的路径,沿此路径发现MTU(最大传输单元)。


traceroute

Traces the route taken by the packets to reach the network host.

追踪网络数据包的路由途径


trap

Trap function responds to hardware signals. It defines and creates handlers to run when the shell receives signals.

定义并创建在shell接收信号时运行的处理程序


troff

The troff processor of the groff text formatting system.

groff文本格式化系统的troff处理器


TRUE

Exit with a status code indicating success.

退出,状态代码表示成功。


tset

Initialize terminal.

初始化终端。


tsort

Perform topological sort.

执行拓扑排序


tty

Display the filename of the terminal connected to standard input.

显示连接到标准输入的终端的文件名


tune2fs

Adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystems.

调整/查看ext2/ext3/ext4文件系统的文件系统参数


tunelp

Set various parameters for the line printer devices.

为行式打印机设备设置各种参数


type

Write a description for a command type.

对命令类型的描述






Linux Commands

U

ul

Underline text.

对文字添加下划线


ulimit

Get and set user limits for the calling process.

获取并设置调用进程的用户限制。


umask

Set file mode creation mask.

设置文件模式创建掩码


umount

Unmount specified file systems.

卸载指定的文件系统


unalias

Remove alias definitions for specified alias names.

删除特定别名的别名定义


uname

Show system information.

显示系统信息


uncompress

Uncompress the files compressed with the compress command.

对compress命令压缩的文件进行解压缩


unexpand

Convert spaces to tabs for a specified file.

将特定文件中的空格转换成tab


unicode_start

Put keyboard and console in Unicode mode.

将键盘和控制台置于Unicode模式


unicode_stop

Revert keyboard and console from Unicode mode.

从Unicode模式恢复键盘和控制台


uniq

Report or omit repeating lines.

报告或省略重复的行


units

Convert units from one scalar to another.

将单位从一个标量转换为另一个标量


unrar

Extract files from a RAR archive.

从RAR存档中提取文件


unset

Remove variable or function names.

删除变量或函数名称


unshar

Unpack shell archive scripts.

解压缩shell归档脚本


until

Execute command until a given condition is true.

执行命令直到给定条件为真


uptime

Tell how long the system has been running.

显示系统运行时间


useradd

Create a new user or update default user information.

创建新用户或更新默认用户信息。


userdel

Delete a user account and related files.

删除用户帐户和相关文件


usermod

Modify a user account.

修改用户帐户


users

Show the list of active users on the machine.

显示计算机上的活动用户列表


usleep

Suspend execution for microsecond intervals.

暂停执行持续微秒的间隔


uudecode

Decode a binary file.

解码二进制文件


uuencode

Encode a binary file.

编码二进制文件


uuidgen

Created a new UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) table.

创建一个新的UUID(通用唯一标识符)表



Linux Commands

V

vdir

Same as ls -l -b. Verbosely list directory contents.

与ls -l -b相同,详细列出目录内容


vi

A text editor utility.

文本编辑器


vidmode

Set the video mode for a kernel image. Displays current mode value without arguments. Alternative: rdev -v

设置内核映像的视频模式。显示不带参数的当前模式值。替代方案:rdev -v


vim

Vi Improved, a text-based editor which is a successor to vi.

升级版vi,基于文本的编辑器


vmstat

Shows information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, disks, and CPU activity.

报告虚拟内存的统计信息


volname

Returns volume name for a device formatted with an ISO-9660 filesystem. For example, CD-ROM.

返回使用ISO-9660文件系统格式化的设备的卷名。例如,CD-ROM。



Linux Commands

W

w

Show who is logged-on and what they’re doing.

显示登录的人员以及他们正在做的事情


wait

Waits for a specified process ID(s) to terminate and returns the termination status.

等待指定的进程ID终止并返回终止状态


wall

Display a message on the terminals all the users who are currently logged-in.

在终端上显示当前登录的所有用户的消息


warnquota

Send mail to the users who’ve exceeded their disk quota soft limit.

发送邮件给超出其磁盘配额软限制的用户


watch

Runs commands repeatedly until interrupted and shows their output and errors.

重复运行命令直到被中断并显示其输出和错误


wc

Print newline, word, and byte count for each of the specified files.

打印每个指定文件的换行符,字和字节个数。


wget

A non-interactive file download utility.

非交互式文件下载程序


whatis

Display one line manual page descriptions.

显示帮助文档的一行内容


whereis

Locate the binary, source, and man page files for a command.

找到命令的二进制文件,源文件和帮助文档


which

For a given command, lists the pathnames for the files which would be executed when the command runs.

对于给定的命令,列出命令运行时将执行的文件的路径名。


while

Conditionally execute commands (while loop).

有条件地执行命令(while循环)。


who

Shows who is logged on.

显示登录的用户。


whoami

Displays the username tied to the current effective user ID.

显示与当前有效用户ID绑定的用户名。


whois

Looks for an object in a WHOIS database

在WHOIS数据库中查找对象


write

Display a message on other user’s terminal.

在其他用户的终端上显示消息。






Linux Commands

X

xargs

Runs a command using initial arguments and then reads remaining arguments from standard input.

使用初始参数运行命令,然后从标准输入中读取剩余的参数。


xdg-open

Used to open a file or URL in an application preferred by the user.

用于在用户青睐的应用程序中打开文件或URL。


xinetd

Extended internet services daemon. Works similar to inetd.

扩展的互联网服务守护进程,与inetd类似


xz

Compress/ Decompress .xz and .lzma files.

压缩/解压缩.xz和.lzma文件。



Linux Commands

Y

yacc

Yet Another Compiler Compiler, a GNU Project parser generator.

另一个编译器编译器,一个GNU项目解析器生成器。


yes

Repeatedly output a line with a specified string(s) until killed.

重复输出具有指定字符串的行直到被终止


ypbind

A daemon that helps client processes to connect to an NIS server.

一个守护程序,可帮助客户端进程连接到NIS服务器。


ypcat

Shows the NIS map (or database) for the specified MapName parameter.

在linux系统中用来打印出网络信息服务(NIS)映射


ypinit

Sets up NIS maps on an NIS server.

在NIS服务器上设置NIS映射


ypmatch

Shows values for specified keys from an NIS map.

显示NIS映射中特定键的值


yppasswd

Change NIS login password.

更改NIS登录密码。


yppasswdd

Acts as a server for the yppasswd command. Receives and executes requests.

充当yppasswd命令的服务器。接收并执行请求。


yppoll

Shows the ID number or version of NIS map currently used on the NIS server.

显示当前在NIS服务器上使用的NIS映射的ID号或版本


yppush

Forces slave NIS servers to copy updated NIS maps.

强制从属NIS服务器复制更新的NIS映射


ypserv

A daemon activated at system startup. It looks for information in local NIS maps.

系统启动时激活的守护程序。它在本地NIS映射中查找信息


ypset

Point a client (running ypbind) to a specifc server (running ypserv).

将客户端(运行ypbind)指向特定服务器(运行ypserv)。


yptest

Calls various functions to check the configuration of NIS services.

调用各种函数来检查NIS服务的配置


ypwhich

Shows the hostname for NIS server or master server for a given map.

显示给定映射的NIS服务器或主服务器的主机名


ypxfr

Transfers NIS server map from server to a local host.

将NIS服务器映射从服务器传输到本地主机。




Linux Commands

Z

zcat

Used to compress/uncompress files. Similar to gzip

用于压缩/解压缩文件。与gzip类似


zcmp

Compare compressed files.

比较压缩文件。


zdiff

Compare compressed files line by line.

逐行比较压缩文件。


zdump

Displays time for the timezone mentioned.

显示所提到的时区的时间。


zforce

Adds .gz extension to all gzipped files.

为所有gzip压缩文件添加.gz扩展名。


zgrep

Performs grep on compressed files.

对压缩文件执行grep。


zic

Creates time conversion information files using the specified input files.

使用指定的输入文件创建时间转换信息文件


zip

A file compression and packaging utility.

文件压缩和打包


zless

Displays information of a compressed file (using less command) on the terminal one screen at a time.

对压缩文件使用less命令


zmore

Displays output of a compressed file (using more command) on the terminal one page at a time.

对压缩文件使用more命令


znew

Recompress .z files to .gz. files.

将.z文件重新压缩为.gz文件


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